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What are pheromones? Scientifically it is a chemical that can be either secreted or excreted for the purpose of creating a response in others of the same species. It is the way bees communicate danger, ants create a trail and people attract the opposite sex. Each species has its own select pheromones that have a particular job to do.

Pheromones

Pheromones are odorless chemicals that humans secrete through sweat and other bodily fluids, and though it is unclear how they are detected research has shown the nasal passage is a key factor. These odorless chemicals tell the opposite sex a few key things, with men it is their level of dominance and ability to protect. These are determined by the amount of androstenones and androsternones. The former speaks of aggression while the latter conveys dominance and safety.

Main Pheromones

Pheromone colognes will contain either androstenones or androsternones and sometimes a unique blend of the two. The key is finding a cologne spray with high enough concentrations to actually make a difference. If you have tried this type of product before with questionable results, you may want to look at the concentration levels.

Potential Results

What can men expect when using pheromone-based cologne? Well, for starters, you will notice women are paying more attention when you walk by and there are two reasons for this reaction. Number one, you are already standing taller and exuding more confidence, which women instantly respond to and number two, they are picking up on the pheromones.

You have to understand, however, that pheromones are only a part of the process. If you are poorly dressed, rude or just totally awkward your results may not be as good. The pheromone product will make you more attractive to the opposite sex, but you will have to couple it will a little personality to really get the ball rolling. Smile, make eye contact and try to be helpful, these are all great ways to encourage the situation.

Who Can Use?

Though you find a lot of men looking into the pheromone cologne option, it is important to understand that these products work for women and they are useful regardless of sexual orientation. No matter your age or desire, this product will help you feel and seem more attractive to your intended audience and it is simple to use.

Use

The best pheromone products will last approximately 4-6 hours on one application. Simply spray it directly on your skin, preferably at your pulse points for maximum efficiency. If you use a high concentration product such as Pherazone (more on that later), you should begin slowly and only use small amounts. The company reports this is one of the biggest mistakes committed by those new to these products.

Pherazone

The best pheromone product on the market today is Pherazone. It has the highest concentration of pheromones and is easily available from online retailers. Apart from access and concentration, you have results. Women and men both report surprising attractions to people they have known for many years. One customer was shocked to find she had a growing attraction to a long time male co-worker only to discover he was using a new pheromone cologne.

In addition, this product smells amazing and the company offers a money back guarantee. What more could you possibly hope for? Try Pherazone, if you are unhappy with the product, the company agrees to return your money.

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Although his results were not conclusive he did find that females were less active in the presence of human pheromones than under control conditions, supporting ideas that the effect of the secretion on the female is to inhibit movement.

Electrophysiological studies have been made (Grant 1970, l971b; Birch l97l; Grant et al. 1972) in an attempt to circumvent this behavioral block. The results of these investigations indicate that male scent brushes or even compounds identified from the scent brushes do not elicit antennal responses that are specific either with respect to sex tested or to chemical compounds employed; nor in general is there any difference between male and female responsiveness.

It seems that no consistent distinction can be drawn between electroantennograms (EAGs) produced by scent- brush compounds and related chemicals (Birch 1971; Grant et al. 1972). In contrast, the female sex pheromones usually have lower threshold values than any other chemicals related or not, and produce larger EAGs than other compounds at concentrations within the normal physiological range (Grant et al. I972).

The conclusion must be that the ability to perceive an odor stimulus is not necessarily correlated with naturally intraspecific biologically active compounds. Further behavioral evidence is needed to determine which component(s) are actually the pheromones.

Evolution of male aphrodisiacs in Lepidoptera

The immediate function of the male pheromones from both the hair-pencils of the Daniinae and the brush-organs of the Noctuidae is to cause inhibition of locomotion in the female, promoting successful mating by blocking her normal escape-flight response to a strange object. In addition to this immediate effect there is also the possibility that the pheromone may also function in a number of other ways: (1) as a species-specific signal to prevent cross breeding; (2) as a primer pheromone to initiate oogenesis; (3) to deter other males; (4) to repel predators.

One immediately attractive theory is that the male pheromones provide a species-specific signal preventing cross-mating, particularly since now we know that considerable cross-attraction occurs to synthetic pheromones and to some extent naturally (Jacobson 1972). However, several species of Noctuidae appear to have similar or identical male pheromones (fig. 7.3). In particular, three species of Leuca-nia all produce a mixture of benzaldehyde and iso-butyric acid in the same ratio (80/20). All these species can occur in the same locality in England.

All have larvae which apparently feed on the same variety of common grasses and all emerge at the same time of year. It is possible that the female sex pheromones are different, but the male antennae of each species respond equally (EAG) to the female pheromones of the other two. The only obvious difference is that each species flies at a different though overlapping time of the night (Birch unpublished). EAG recordings from several noctuid species indicate that the male scent brushes and compounds isolated from them are very unspecific.

So far no threshold differences have been found for substances from one species as opposed to another. For example, Grant (l97lb) found that eight noctuid species all responded similarly to the hair-pencils of Trichoplusiani.

Working with Pseudaletia unipuncta Grant et al. (1972) also found that both male and female antennae responded equally well to each chemical extracted from the brushes (fig. 7.3) and that scent brush compounds were no more stimulating than other compounds. Any specificity in the Noctuidae remains to be found.